The NGO World


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NGOs: Meaning, History, and Significance


The meaning of NGOs:  Nongovernmental organizations

NGO characteristics

Different types of NGOs

History of NGOs

Reasons for the current growth of NGOs

NGO and globalization

Challenges and responses

Meaning of NGO

         Formal: institutionalized

         Private: nongovernmental


         Exhibition of altruistic value and ideologically driven

         Nonprofit distributing

         Development oriented

Different Types of NGOs

Supply-Side NGOs

        Welfare oriented NGOs

        Provide services directly to local community

        Rely on volunteers and staff

        CARE, Plan International, MSF

Demand-Side NGOs

        Advocacy/lobbying work

        Advance beliefs and ideologies

        Seek to influence public policy

        the Interaction and Steering Committee for Humanitarian Response (SCHR)

 National NGOs or GRSOs

-          intermediary organizations

-          Professionally staff, nationally based, educated middle   class

-          Bureaucratic org

-          Externally funded


-          known as CBOs or Pos

-          Membership orgs

-          Community oriented

-          Small self-help orgs

-          Run by volunteers

-          Locally based

 Evolution of NGOs

 Lindenberg & Bryant


        Based on org structure, production of services, and governance

        National NGOs: MSF France

        Multinational NGOs: Mercy Corps

        Fully multinational NGOs: CARE, SCF, Plan

 David Korten

“Four-Generation NGOs”

         First generation: welfare oriented

         Second generation: sustainable, self-help orgs

         Third generation: advocacy, structural change

         Fourth: social movement

 History of INGOs

 Emergence: 1775-1918

-          National issues: slave trade, peace movement, labour rights

-          Humanitarian relief for war victims and refugees

II. Engagement: 1920 to 1940

-          raising awareness of international issues

-          Interacting with governments

III. Disengagement: 1941-1944

-          Humanitarian and emergency for war victims

-          Growing hostility

-          Inhibited NGO participation

IV. Formalization 1945-late 1960s

-          recognition by international agencies

-          No real cooperation

V: Late 1960s-1970s: Quite Growth

         Gov as recipient of international aid

         Gov as the engine of development

         Prevalence of TNCs

         Mutual mistrust

         NGO presence was tolerated

VI: 1980s: Limited contribution of NGOs

         Reagan and Thatcher era

         Market as the engine of growth

         Dominance of institutional donors

         Donor-led development

         Development of NGO cooperation with official aid system

VII: 1990s: Favored Child

-          alternative model of development (people-centered model)

-          NGOs as the preferred mechanism of development

-          Failure of past efforts

-          Evidence of NGO growth

-          Gained access to policymakers

VIII: 2000-current: Self-examination

-          critical path of NGOs

-          Welfare providers for official aid system or advocacy organizations

-          Fundamental values and roles of NGOs in development

 NGO-Growth Factors

       Fiscal crisis: budget cut, slow economy, economic recession

       The End of Cold War

       The Third Wave of Democratic Opening

       An increasing use of public bilateral and multilateral resources


       Change in ideology: The New Policy Agenda

       Growing demand

 Globalization Challenges

 3 aspects of globalization

        Social globalization

        Economic globalization

        Political globalization

NGO Challenges

1. New Waves of Complex Emergencies

2. New Form of Global Poverty

3. Declining capacity of national governments

4. Weak and outmoded global institutions

5. New pressure for accountability and efficiency

6. New pressures to respond globally

7. Recreating purpose and mystique

 Internal Response Needed

Reexamine our values

        Create a new vision and mission

        Design new relief and development programs

        Transform organizational culture

        Increases accountability

        Build global networks for services, fundraising, and advocacy

        Restore meaning in organizational work

 Variables in Managing Change

         Stakeholder review

         Staff morale and issues

         Partnership choices

         Program review problems/possibilities

         Financial/base/options for change

         Donors’ roles and relationships

         A learning organization

 Progress and Bumps in the Road


       Mission and values

       Relief and development programming

       Service and Support systems

       National Boards and global family governance

       Partnership beyond the family


       Middle managers

       Structure of NGO families

       Donor pressure

       Unpredictable external environment

       Staff motivation and organizational culture